Copyright (c) 2020 Fransiska Ayulistya Susanto, M. Choirul Hidayat
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This paper is offer an assessment of the situation regarding freedom of religion in Xinjiang China. It argues that the Xinjiang authorities and the China government responsible for freedom of religion violation under their counter terrorism action. Even though, the freedom of religion is derogable right however the reason shall be under the national security and public order situation but, what the government do is too far and could lead Uighur religion eradication. To investigate the Xinjiang authorities and China government action, the paper collects the data from many Non-governmental organization and United Nation Report and analysis the fact with the international regulation and national regulation that China follow or have.
- Greer, Steven, The Exceptions to Article 8 to 11 of The Convention on Human Rights, Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing, 1997. View Item
- Henne, S. Peter, “Terrorism and Religion: An Overview”, in Oxford Research Encyclopedia, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2019.View Item
- Mégret, Frédéric, “Nature of Obligation”, International Human Rights Law, edited by Daniel Moeckli, Sanggeeta Shah, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014. (Hard Copy), View Item
- OSCE, Preventing Terrorism and Countering Violent Extremism and Radicalization that Lead to Terrorism: A Community-Policing Approach, (Vienna: the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, 2014). View Item
- Tum, Rian, The Uyghurs in Modern China, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Asia History, April 2018, DOI: 10.1093/acrefore/9780190277727.013.160. View Item
- United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Human Rights: A Basic Handbook for UN Staff, United Nation, 2000. View Item
- United Nations Human Rights Office of the High Commissioner, Human Rights: Handbook for Parliamentarians No 26, The Inter-Parliamentary Union and The United Nations, 2016. View Item
- Khamdan, Muh., “Rethingking Deradikalisasi: Konstruksi Bina Damai Penanganan Terorisme”, ADDIN, Vol. 9, No. 1, (2015). View Item, Google Scholar
- Nilay Saiya, “Religion, Democracy, and Terrorism”, Prospectives on Terrorism, Vol. 9, No. 6, (2015), 55-59, View Item, Google Scholar
- Henne, Peter S. “Government Interference in Religious Institution and Terrorism”, Religion, State & Society, (2018), 67-86, View Item, Google Scholar.
- Kunal Mukherjee, “The Uyghur Question in Contemporary China”, Strategic Analysis, Vol. 34, No. 3, (2010), 420-435, View Item, Google Scholar.
- Qianfan, Zhang, and Yingping, Zhu, “Religious Freedom and Its Legal Restriction in China”, BYU Law Review, Vol. 2011, No. 3, (2011), p.783-816, View Item, Google Scholar.
- Raza, Zainab, “China’s Political Re-Education’ Camps of Xinjiang’s Uyghur Muslims”, Asian Affair, Vol. 50, No. 4, (2019), p. 488-501, View Item, Google Scholar.
- Finley, Joane Smith, “Securitization, Insecurity and Conflict: in Contemporary Xinjiang: has PRC counter-terrorism evolved into state terror? Central Asian Survey, Vol. 38. No. 1, (2019), p. 1-26, View Item, Google Scholar
- Dankwa, Working paper on Article 2(3) ICESCR, 1987, 9 HRQ 230, 240.
- Austrian Red Cross, China: Situation of Uyghurs, COI Compilation, 2016.
- Human Rights Watch, “Eradicating Ideological Viruses: China’s Campaign of Repression Against Xinjiang’s Muslim, HRW”, 2018, pdf version.
- ILPI, “Human Rights e-lerning Course- Chapter 6- Limitation”, https://ilpi.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/E-learning-HR-chap-6-limitations-ASO-20170628.pdf
- World Uyghur Congress, “World Uyghur Congress Submission on 3rd Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of The People’s Republic of China (PRC)”, March 2018.
- Report of the special Rapporteur on Human Rights and counter-terrorism, n 39
- The US Commission on International Religious Religion, Annual Report 2015.
- Amnesty Internasional, “China: Families of up to one million detained in mass “re-education” drive demand answer”, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2018/09/china-xinjiang-families-of-up-to-one-million-detained-demand-answers/.
- Amnesty Internasional, Help Muslims in Xinjiang, China, observe Ramadan, https://www.amnesty.org/en/get-involved/take-action/china-xinjiang-uyghur-muslims/,
- BBC, “Why is there tension between china and the Uighur?”, https://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-26414014.
- China Law Translate, “Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Regulation on De-Extremification,” https://www.chinalawtranslate.com/en/decision-to-revise-the-xinjiang-uighur-autonomous-region-regulation-on-de-extremification/
- Chinese Human Rights Defenders, Criminal Arrest in Xinjiang Account for 21% of China’s Total in 2017, 25 July 2018, https://www.nchrd.org/2018/07/criminal-arrests-in-xinjiang-account-for-21-of-chinas-total-in-2017/
- Chirs Buckley, Steven Lee Myers, China Builds more Secreat ‘Re-education camp’ to Detain Uighur Muslims despite Global Outcry Over Human Suffering, Independent, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/xi-jinping-regime-han-chinese-threat-uighur-muslims-persecution-detention-camps-a9051126.html,
- Gerry Shih, “China’s Mass Indoctrination Camps Evoke Cultural Revolution”, May 2018, https://apnews.com/6e151296fb194f85ba69a8babd972e4b
- Human Rights Watch, Devastating Blows, https://www.hrw.org/report/2005/04/11/devastating-blows/religious-repression-uighurs-xinjiang,
- Nick Cumming-Bruce, China Rebuked by 22 Nations Over Xinjiang Repressio, 16 June 2019, The Ney Yorks Times https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/10/world/asia/china-xinjiang-rights.html
- Nick Cumming-Bruce, More than 35 Countries Defend China Over Mass Detention of Uighur Muslin in UN Latter, Independent, https://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/china-mass-detentions-uighur-muslims-un-letter-human-rights-a9003281.html,
- Rikar Hussein, Diplomat Confirms Limits on Ramadan in Xinjiang, https://www.voanews.com/extremism-watch/diplomat-confirms-limits-ramadan-xinjiang
- Tamara Qiblawi, Solidaritas Semu Uighur dan Pujian Negara Muslim bagi China, CNN Indonesia, https://www.cnnindonesia.com/internasional/20190719021238-120-413488/solidaritas-semu-uighur-dan-pujian-negara-muslim-bagi-china,
- The Conversation, “Explainer: Who are the Uyghur and Why is The Chinese Government Detaining them?, https://theconversation.com/explainer-who-are-the-uyghurs-and-why-is-the-chinese-government-detaining-them-111843.
- United Nation, “Human Rights”, http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/human-rights/.
- UN Global Counter-terrorism Strategy, https://www.un.org/counterterrorism/ctitf/en/un-global-counter-terrorism-strategy